In light of the present circumstances – the geopolitical tensions, high manufacturing costs, and rising uncertainties – a particular trend that has become rather prominent is that of diversifying supply chains. Especially for apparel and footwear manufacturers, this trend has transformed into the China+1 strategy which has taken businesses on a rather difficult journey – the exodus from China.
Considering the cost savings, an established manufacturing and supply chain ecosystem, and consistent quality in mass manufacturing that China brings to the table, it becomes quite challenging to replicate the same elsewhere. As a result, the country has been the epicenter of global manufacturing for decades, a testament to its capabilities in delivering a stable and efficient production environment.
It becomes imperative that moving away from China brings along many risks, not only for manufacturers but also for the substantial investments that Chinese manufacturers have made in neighboring countries. It is estimated that around USD 1.8 billion have been invested in countries like Vietnam and Thailand by Chinese companies to create alternate production hubs. There is an evident threat to these investments if and when clothing firms pull away from China.
For example, Vietnam, a country that has witnessed substantial growth in its textile sector, still relies heavily on Chinese materials for its production. Buttons, threads, labels, and packaging are some of the essential components that are primarily sourced from China, with only 30% to 40% being domestically produced. This reliance underscores the interconnectedness of global supply chains and the complex web of dependencies that have developed over time.
Despite these challenges, several countries are emerging as potential beneficiaries of the China+1 strategy. India, for instance, has become an attractive destination for diversification. Apple Inc. has been expanding its production in India as part of its strategy to diversify away from its primary manufacturing center in China. Fast Retailing Co.’s Uniqlo has also announced plans to explore additional manufacturing partners in the region.
However, the question remains: Can any other country, even one with a population comparable to China’s, replicate its enormous manufacturing ecosystem?