A new report by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has illuminated that Africa – the world’s second-largest continent – has the potential to redefine its economic landscape with its ability to become a significant exporter of higher value-added goods. The report predicts that in the coming years, Africa will be igniting growth, generating employment opportunities, and ushering in enhanced productivity and wages. As the report was unveiled in Nairobi, UNCTAD Secretary-General Rebeca Grynspan underlined its role in shaping a brighter future for Africa’s economies.
Diversification emerges as a potent strategy, fostering resilience and driving innovation, as emphasized by Grynspan. Unarguably, diversification is a pivotal cornerstone for private sector development and job creation – which is in fact a crucial need for Africa’s burgeoning population.
Grynspan’s insights underscore three fundamental drivers that amplify this opportunity. Geopolitically, Africa’s potential to become a diverse supplier aligns with the global trend of reducing risks through supplier diversification. The African Continental Free Trade Area complements this advantage, presenting fertile ground for participating in global supply chains.
Furthermore, Africa’s foothold in the renewable energy market and its rich reserve of raw materials, including lithium vital for electric car batteries, position it as a pivotal player in technology-intensive industries. Instead of limiting itself to commodity exports, Africa can aspire to export intricate finished products, capitalizing on this unique edge. Demographically, Africa not only boasts a dynamic and young workforce but also nurtures a burgeoning middle class, fostering local consumer markets for advanced technology goods.
The report delves into the untapped potential within African industries such as automobiles, solar energy, and pharmaceuticals. Significantly, Africa’s rapid growth in tech ecosystems, exemplified by hubs in AI, 3D printing, blockchain, fintech, and e-commerce, fuels innovation and strengthens its potential to claim technology-intensive global supply chains.
While envisioning growth, the report stresses that an environment conducive to technology-intensive industries will elevate wages. Currently, Africa’s average monthly salary stands at $220, a stark contrast to nearly $670 in the Americas. Moreover, integrating more deeply into global supply chains will diversify African economies, enhancing their resilience against future shocks.
The report advocates for increased investment, highlighting that only a mere 2% of global investments in renewable energy currently flow into Africa. Paul Akiwumi, Director of UNCTAD’s Division on Africa, highlights the necessity to remove regulatory barriers, establish regional industrial development strategies, and prioritize aspects like product registration and intellectual property to attract private investment.
Crucially, Grynspan underscores the importance of debt relief for Africa to harness its competitive advantage. By creating fiscal space, countries can invest in strengthening supply chains and workforce education. She advocates for a transformation in borrowing dynamics, reflecting UNCTAD’s commitment to unlocking Africa’s economic potential and altering the perception of risk associated with developing economies.
In a world beckoning change, Africa stands poised to reshape its economic destiny. As it does, the UNCTAD report’s insights serve as a beacon of hope, guiding the way toward diversified growth, prosperity, and the fulfillment of Africa’s boundless potential.